Short forms in English / Contracted forms / Abbreviated forms
In spoken English and informal written English, we often use short forms (Contracted forms) of the auxiliaries (am, is, are, have, has, had, will, and would.)
We use an apostrophe (‘) for the missing letter or letters.
Here are some examples of contracted forms (example short form):
- I am from Brazil.
→ I’m from Brazil.
- He is an engineer.
→ He’s an engineer.
- We are interested in learning English.
→ We’re interested in learning English.
- I have got some nice friends.
→ I’ve got some nice friends.
- She has got a new computer.
→ She’s got a new computer.
- You had better see a doctor.
→ You’d better see a doctor.
- I will help you with that exercise.
→ I’ll help you with that exercise.
- I would like to join the team.
→ I’d like to join the team.
We also contract negatives:
- Do not → don’t
- Does not → doesn’t
- Did not → didn’t
- Is not → isn’t
- Are not → aren’t
- Was not → wasn’t
- Were not → weren’t
- Will not → won’t
- Shall not → shan’t
- Have not → haven’t
- Has not → hasn’t
- Had not → hadn’t
- Let us → let’s
- Let us not → let’s not
Here are some more examples of short forms in sentences:
- Helen’s watching an action movie.
- Dad’s washing the car.
- They aren’t coming to the party.
- We don’t like playing golf.
- David wasn’t here when the accident happened.
- Let’s improve our English. Let’s not waste our time on social networking websites.
- Katherine hasn’t submitted her project yet.
- We didn’t meet at school. We just had an online meeting.
Learn these phrases that mean ‘arrive’ and enrich your English vocabulary.