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Linking words and phrases

Linking words and phrases

In this post, you’ll learn how to use a variety of linking words and linking phrases. Linking words and phrases are also called transition words, connective words, or linking devices.

Generally, linking words and phrases like conjunctions and prepositions are used to express connections of contrast, concession, purpose, cause and effect, addition, etc.

Linkers of purpose

There are several linking words that you can use to express purpose. Here is a list of linking words that you might need in writing or a grammar test.

  • I study hard so as to /in order to / to pass my exams.
  • She went on a diet so as to /in order to / to lose weight.
  • I took a taxi so as not to / in order not to be late for the meeting.
  • I’ll help my sister so that/in order that she can finish early.
  • I helped her so that/in order that she could finish early.

In order to and so as to are formal ways of expressing purpose.

  • They left early so that /in order that they wouldn’t miss the train.
  • I use my smartphone for communication.
  • My mother visited a doctor for a check-up.
  • I use my smartphone for texting my friends.
  • A lot of people use smartphones for vlogging.
  • A dishwasher is used for washing the dishes.
  • Our team is in a meeting now with a view to fixing some customer service problems.
  • My older brother went abroad with the aim of finding a better job.

The expressions with the aim of and with a view to are normally used to express purpose in a formal way.

Expressing Addition

  • Reading books not only reduces stress but also broadens knowledge.
  • Not only does reading books reduce stress, but it also broadens knowledge.
  • Illiteracy not only affects the individual, but also the whole society.
  • Not only does illiteracy affect the individual, but it also affects the whole society.
  • I got a high grade in the exam. Not only did my father buy me a watch, but he also allowed me to go on a picnic with my friends.

If not only is placed at the beginning of the sentence, subject-verb inversion is obligatory.

  • In addition to languages, I also love Art.
  • In addition to being good at languages, she is also very good at Chemistry.
  • In addition to reducing stress, reading books broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. In addition, it broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. Additionally, it broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. Besides, it broadens knowledge.
  • Besides reducing stress, reading books broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. Also, it broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. It also broadens knowledge.
  • Reading books reduces stress. It broadens knowledge, too.
  • Reading books reduces stress. It broadens knowledge as well.
  • He’s a talented artist. Furthermore / Moreover, he is a famous writer.

Expressing Concession

  • Although /though / even if / even though my homework was very difficult, I could do it.
  • I could do my homework although /though / even if / even though it was very difficult.
  • Although /though / even if / even though he is rich, he lives in a small house.
  • He lives in a small house although /though / even if / even though he is rich.
  • Despite /in spite of being rich, he lives in a small house.
  • Despite/in spite of his wealth, he lives in a small house.
  • Despite/in spite of his old age, my grandfather does sport every day.
  • Despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.
  • He is rich. Nonetheless, he lives in a small house.
  • He studied hard for the exam. Nevertheless, he did not get higher marks.
  • The weather was very bad. However, we enjoyed our picnic.
  • He is a handsome person. Yet, she refused to marry him.
  • He is rich, but he lives in a small house.

Although /though/even if/ even though + subject+ verb

Despite/in spite of + verb+ing

Despite / in spite of + noun

Contrast words

  • While I’m very good at Physics and Maths, my sister is really good at languages. She can speak 4 languages.
  • I did well in the Physics test, whereas/while my sister didn’t. I am certain she will do well in the Chinese test.
  • She speaks four languages, whereas/while her brother hasn’t yet learned any.
  • Our city is very clean. On the other hand, it’s a bit crowded.

Cause and effect conjunctions

Cause and effect examples: Here are some cause and effect sentences

  • He left very early because he wanted to catch the first train.
  • He put on his coat because it was getting colder.
  • He put on his coat as it was getting colder.
  • He put on his coat since it was getting colder.
  • I can’t get into the house because I have lost the key.
  • I was late because of the heavy traffic.
  • I was late owing to the heavy traffic.
  • I was late due to the heavy traffic.
  • I was late on account of the heavy traffic.
  • I was late as a result of the heavy traffic.
  • Thanks to their hard work, they passed their exams with flying colors.
  • They passed their exams with flying colors thanks to their hard work.

Because/since/as + subject+ verb

Because of/owing to/due to/on account of/as a result of/thanks to + noun

Most learners of English need linking words and phrases for either grammar tests or writing assignments or test.

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